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Input Output-printf() and scanf()


printf()  and scanf() function in C:
  • printf() and scanf() functions are inbuilt library functions in C programming language which are available in C library by default.These functions are declared and related macros are defined in “stdio.h” which is a header file in C language.
  • We have to include “stdio.h” file as shown in below C program to make use of these printf() and scanf() library functions in C language.
printf() function in C:
  • In C programming language, printf() function is used to print the “character, string, float, integer, octal and hexadecimal values” onto the output screen.
    Here’s a quick summary of the available printf format specifiers:
%c
character
%d
decimal (integer) number (base 10)
%ld
Long integer
%e
exponential floating-point number
%f
floating-point number
%i
integer (base 10)
%o
octal number (base 8)
%s
a string of characters
%u
unsigned decimal (integer) number
%x
number in hexadecimal (base 16)
%%
print a percent sign
\%
print a percent sign

Controlling integer width with printf
The %3d specifier is used with integers, and means a minimum width of three spaces, which, by default, will be right-justified:
Left-justifying printf integer output
To left-justify integer output with printf, just add a minus sign (-) after the % symbol,
printf integer zero fill option
To zero-fill your printf integer output, just add a zero (0) after the % symbol,
printf integer formatting
As a summary of printf integer formatting, here’s a little collection of integer formatting examples. Several different options are shown, including a minimum width specification, left-justified, zero-filled, and also a plus sign for positive numbers.
Description Code Result
At least five wide printf("'%5d'", 10); ' 10'
At least five-wide, left-justified printf("'%-5d'", 10); '10 '
At least five-wide, zero-filled printf("'%05d'", 10); '00010'
At least five-wide, with a plus sign printf("'%+5d'", 10); ' +10'
Five-wide, plus sign, left-justified
printf("'%-+5d'", 10);
'+10 '


formatting floating point numbers with printf
Here are several examples showing how to format floating-point numbers with printf:
Description Code Result
Print one position after the decimal printf("'%.1f'", 10.3456); '10.3'
Two positions after the decimal printf("'%.2f'", 10.3456); '10.35'
Eight-wide, two positions after the decimal printf("'%8.2f'", 10.3456); ' 10.35'
Eight-wide, four positions after the decimal printf("'%8.4f'", 10.3456); ' 10.3456'
Eight-wide, two positions after the decimal, zero-filled printf("'%08.2f'", 10.3456); '00010.35'
Eight-wide, two positions after the decimal, left-justified printf("'%-8.2f'", 10.3456); '10.35 '
Printing a much larger number with that same format printf("'%-8.2f'", 101234567.3456); '101234567.35'

printf string formatting
Here are several examples that show how to format string output with printf:
Description Code Result
A simple string printf("'%s'", "Hello"); 'Hello'
A string with a minimum length printf("'%10s'", "Hello"); ' Hello'
Minimum length, left-justified printf("'%-10s'", "Hello"); 'Hello '

printf special characters
The following character sequences have a special meaning when used as printf format specifiers:
\a
Audible alert
\b
Backspace
\f
Form feed
\r
Carriage return
\?
Question mark
\n
New Line
\t
Tab
\v
Vertical tab
\\
Back slash
\0
ASCII null character
\’
Single quotes
\””
Double quotes
\o
Octal Constant
\x
Hexadecimal constant

As you can see from that last example, because the backslash character itself is treated specially, you have to print two backslash characters in a row to get one backslash character to appear in your output.
Here are a few examples of how to use these special characters:
Description Code Result
Insert a tab character in a string printf("Hello\tworld"); Hello world
Insert a newline character in a string printf("Hello\nworld"); Hello
world
Typical use of the newline character printf("Hello world\n"); Hello world
A DOS/Windows path with
backslash characters
printf("C:\\Windows\\System32\\"); C:\Windows\System32\

scanf() function in C language:
  • In C programming language, scanf() function is used to read character, string, numeric data from keyboard
The examples show various syntax for reading diffrent data types
int x; sacnf(“%i”,&x); or scanf(“%d”,&x);
float x;scanf(“%f”,&x);
char x; scanf(“%c”,&c);
long int x; scanf(“%ld”,&x);
char str[100];scanf(“%s”,str);






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