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Preprocessor Directives


In a C program, all lines that start with # are processed by preprocessor which is a special program invoked by the compiler. In a very basic term, preprocessor takes a C program and produces another C program without any #.
Following are some interesting facts about preprocessors in C.
1) When we use include directive,  the contents of included header file (after preprocessing) are copied to the current file.
Angular brackets < and > instruct the preprocessor to look in the standard folder where all header files are held.  Double quotes and instruct the preprocessor to look into the current folder and if the file is not present in current folder, then in standard folder of all header files.
2) When we use define for a constant, the preprocessor produces a C program where the defined constant is searched and matching tokens are replaced with the given expression. For example in the following program max is defined as 100.
#include<stdio.h>
#define max 100
int main()
{
    printf("max is %d", max);
    return 0;
}
// Output: max is 100
// Note that the max inside "" is not replaced

#include <stdio.h>
#define MULTIPLY(a, b) a*b
int main()
{
   
    printf("%d", MULTIPLY(2, 3));
    return 0;
}
3)Preprocessors also support if-else directives which are typically used for conditional compilation.
int main()
{
#if VERBOSE >= 2
  printf("Trace Message");
#endif
}
4)A header file may be included more than one time directly or indirectly, this leads to problems of redeclaration of same variables/functions. To avoid this problem, directives like defined, ifdef and ifndef are used.


5)There are some standard macros which can be used to print program file (__FILE__), Date of compilation (__DATE__), Time of compilation (__TIME__) and Line Number in C code (__LINE__)
#include <stdio.h>
 int main()
{
   printf("Current File :%s\n", __FILE__ );
   printf("Current Date :%s\n", __DATE__ );
   printf("Current Time :%s\n", __TIME__ );
   printf("Line Number :%d\n", __LINE__ );
   return 0;
}
Below is the list of preprocessor directives that C programming language offers.
Preprocessor Syntax/Description
Macro Syntax: #define
This macro defines constant value and can be any of the basic data types.
Header file inclusion Syntax: #include <file_name>
The source code of the file “file_name” is included in the main program at the specified place.
Conditional compilation Syntax: #ifdef, #endif, #if, #else, #ifndef
Set of commands are included or excluded in source program before compilation with respect to the condition.
Other directives Syntax: #undef, #pragma,#line
#undef is used to undefine a defined macro variable. #Pragma is used to call a function before and after main function in a C program.
set line number

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