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Strings in C

Strings are defined as an array of characters. The difference between a character array and a string is the string is terminated with a special character ‘\0’.
Declaration of strings: Declaring a string is as simple as declaring a one dimensional array. Below is the basic syntax for declaring a string.
In the above syntax str_name is any name given to the string variable and size is used define the length of the string, i.e the number of characters strings will store. Please keep in mind that there is an extra terminating character which is the Null character (‘\0’) used to indicate termination of string which differs strings from normal character arrays.
Initializing a String: A string can be initialized in different ways. We will explain this with the help of an example. Below is an example to declare a string with name as str and initialize it with “cek”.
1. charstr[] = "cek";
2. charstr[50] = "cek";
3. charstr[] = {'c','e',,'k' ,'\0'};
4. charstr[4] = {'c','e','k','\0'};
String input output:printf and scanf with %s format specifier is used for printing and reading. However basic scanf statement will read up to space.The gets(s) function can be used to read a line and store it in string.
Various string handling functions defined in C can be used by including the header file string.h
The most commonly used functions in the string library are:
strcat - concatenate two strings.
strchr - string scanning operation.
strcmp - compare two strings.
strcpy - copy a string.
strlen - get string length.
strncat - concatenate one string with part of another.
strncmp - compare parts of two strings.
strncpy - copy part of a string.
strrchr - string scanning operation.
strstr - Find a substring.
strlwr-convert string to lower case.
strupr-convert string to upper case.
strrev-reverse a string

No standard operators for string assignment and comparison ( like in Python or Java). Strings in C are just arrays of characters only.
Sample Programs
// C program to read and print a string

int main()
    // declaring string

    // reading string

    // print string

return 0;
// read a string and print the characters in backwards
int main() {

char S[100];
int l, i;
printf(‘enter the string..\n”);
  l = strlen(S);

for (i = l-1; i >= 0; --i)
printf(" %c",S[i]);
//check whether the given string is palindrome
int main() {

char s[100],rs[100];
int l, i;
printf(‘enter the string..\n”);
strcpy(rs,s); // copying the string s to rs using strcpy function
 //reversing the string using built in function strrev
 //comparing the strings using strcmp function
If ( strcmp(s,rs)==0)
printf(“String is palindrome”)
printf(“Not palindrome”);

Caution with string 
 gets is deprecated because it's dangerous, it may cause buffer overflow.
instead of gets you can also use scanf("%[^\n]",s); for reading a string s.Other choices are getline and fgets.
check the following sample program.

Count the occurrence of a character in a string
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
char s[100],c;
int i,n=0;
printf("Enter a string...\n");
scanf("%[^\n]",s); // instead of gets(s)
printf("Enter the character to search...\n");
scanf(" %c",&c);  // leave a space before %c which will eat special characters
if(s[i]==c) n++;
printf("Number of occurrence=%d\n",n);

programs to try
1.Toggle the case of every alphabet in the input string.
2. Abbreviate a given string ( print first letter of each word).
3.Read a string print the occurrence of a character.
4.Read a string and count the number of vowels.
5.Print the frequency of occurrence of each vowel character.
6.Remove blank spaces from a string.
7.Count the number of words.
8.Print a substring ( read position and length)
9.Print number of words, vowels and consonants from a given string.
10.Count all the occurrence of a  particular word.
11.Remove all occurrence of  a word from a sentence.
12.Insert a word before a particular word.
13.Check whether a word is present in a string.
14.Read a word and print the characters in alphabetical order.
15.Read list of names and sort the names in alphabetical order.


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